Introduction to the Internet Protocols

Introduction to the Internet Protocols

Although it was possible that OSI or another solution could have solved this problem, the Internet’s protocols achieved this objective. This thesis shows how the networks converged around TCP/IP. For example, a printer needs to send messages to a computer telling it that it has run out of paper or that it is ready to print while a computer needs to send the data it wants to print to the printer. Computers need to send data between themselves so that, for example, email can be exchanged and the Internet can function. When two devices want to successfully communicate, they must agree to follow some rules about the way they will do it.

Introduction to the Internet Protocols

When TCP/IP is used on top of X.25, the X.25 interface breaks the datagrams up into 128-byte packets. This is invisible to IP, because the packets are put back crossgrid.org together into a single datagram at the other end before being processed by TCP/IP. So in this case, one IP datagram would be carried by several packets.

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Domain Name Servers are the Internet’s equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to numerical IP addresses. These IP addresses are used to identify and locate the web-servers on the Internet. We are not going to describe the application protocols in detail in this document.

  • TCP is the most widely used of the two, and is also the most reliable.
  • Of course if the other end sends a datagram back to you, the source and destination port numbers will be reversed, since then it will be the source and you will be the destination.
  • At each end of the leased line, a router connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other.
  • But if you need to know any details of the technology, you will want to read the standards yourself.
  • Technically, datagram is the right word to use when describing TCP/IP.

And supports network packets containing control, error, and informational messages. ICMP is used by such network applications as the ping utility, which can determine the availability of a network host or device. Examples of some error messages returned by ICMP which are useful to both network hosts and devices such as routers, include Destination Unreachable and Time Exceeded. First, it is necessary to understand the model on which IP is based.IP assumes that a system is attached to some local network. A gateway is a system that connects a network with one or more other networks.

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Both TCP and UDP control how packets are prepared for sending across the internet and what happens to them when they are received on the other side. The TCP/IP protocols are a suite of protocols used to support different types of communication between devices over an IP network such as the Internet. Part of an important network protocol called TCP/IP that is used to control data moving through the Internet.